Encyclopedia >> Encyclopedia of Armenian Genocide >> Treaty of Alexandropol

 TREATY OF ALEXANDROPOL was signed in the night from 2nd to 3rd December, 1920 between the Republic of Armenia and Turkey after the Alexandropol Conference (1920). It was officially called the "Peace treaty between Armenia and Turkey" and consisted of 18 articles.

According to the first article of the treaty, the war between Armenia and Turkey was declared to be over and the border between Armenia and Turkey was defined. Kars region and the province Surmalu (more than 20.7 million square kilometers) passed to Turkey and the districts of Nakhichevan, Sharur, Shahtakhti were temporary declared to be under the patronage of Turkey, where a special administration was to be established later through a referendum. Armenian government lost the opportunity to participate in the activities of the administration, no matter what kind of administration it was.   

The Republic of Armenia was entitled to make a claim for the Referendum in Kars region and province Surmalu, but in the same third article it was stated that those areas "have undeniable ethnic, historical and legal ties with Turkey”, which in fact denied the need of a referendum. Armenia was deprived of the right to make a general conscription, and the right to have an army, it could only have 1,500 troops, 8 cannons and 20 machine guns. It could build fortresses and put  heavy artillery in it, only on condition that they were not more than 15 cm. in diameter and long-range weapons (Article 4). According to Article 5, the Turkey's political representative or ambassador, who was to arrive in Yerevan after the peace treaty, had the right to conduct investigation on the implementation of all the above mentioned points. In return, Turkey was obliged to provide Armenia with military aid in the case of both external and internal threats, if the government of Armenia made such request to Turkey.

The Armenian government refused from the Treaty of Sevres (1920) and undertook to withdraw its ambassadors from Europe and the USA, as well as "those who pursue imperialist aims in the state leadership". It also recognized all the agreements which infringe the rights of Turkey or its interests, invalid. Turkey received a right to control the railways and the ways of communication in Armenia and to organize the military actions in the territory of Armenia.

The areas recognized as part of Armenia according to the treaty but  occupied by Turkey (Alexandropol District) were to be released after the implementation of all points of the treaty  by Armenia. This point allowed Turkey to proceed with the long-term occupation of the province, as the agreement was designed so that you could always cling to the non-fulfillment or partial fulfillment of a point of the treaty. The other articles of the treaty were on the transit trade, the return of refugees to their homeland, the rights of the Muslim population in Armenia. 

All of these conditions violated the rights of Armenia, banned the return of Armenian refugees to their homeland. According to the 7th article "The Turkish government refused from the reimbursement of expenses related to the war…the two sides also refuse from the claims of compensation for the  losses during the World War."

Thus, Turkey was freed from payment for the property of exterminated and exiled Armenians. According to Paris Peace Conference, this amount was 19 billion francs. The treaty was to be ratified within one month from the date of its signing. Alexandropol agreement consisted of two copies - in Armenian and in Turkish.

Soviet Armenia has not recognized the Treaty of Alexandropol. Later, on October 13, 1921, a new treaty was signed with Turkey in Kars (the Treaty of Kars, 1921).

 Source-Encyclopedia "The Armenian Question", Yerevan, 1996. 
RA, Yerevan, Alex Manoogian 1, YSU 2nd annex
the 5th floor,
Tel.: + 37460 71 00 92
E-mail: info@armin.am

© Institute for Armenian Studies of YSU
All rights are reserved. In case of full or partial use of the web-site materials or the citation the reference to www.armeniansgenocide.am is compulsory.